[85] The Chicago Daily Defender, March 26, 1968, 20.

[86] Lee left the Postal Service in 1972 to wind up chief of showcasing examination for Xerox Corporation.

[87] See Chisholm v. Joined States Postal Service, United States Court of Appeals, at http://openjurist.org/665/f2d/482/chisholm-v-joined states-postal-benefit an e-t-r (gotten to January 5, 2011).

[88] Ibid, Note 24.

[89] Martin Asher and Joel Popkin, “The Effect of Gender and Race Differentials on Public-Private Wage Comparisons: A Study of Postal Workers,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Vol. 38, No. 1 (October 1984), 22. Asher and Popkin’s investigation was activated by a recent report that discovered that postal specialists’ wages were higher than those in comparable private area ventures. Taking a gander at similar information, Asher and Popkin discovered this was genuine simply because private area enterprises by and large paid nonwhites as well as ladies less pay for practically identical work, while white men in the Postal Service and the private part were paid comparable wages.

[90] See Craig Zwerling and Hilary Silver, “Race and Job Dismissals in a Federal Bureaucracy,” American Sociological Review, October 1992.

[91] EAS, or “Official and Administrative Schedule,” workers, comprise of representatives in most regulatory and administrative positions; PCES, or “Postal Career Executive Service,” representatives, comprise of workers in key administration positions.

[92] From September 1975 until August 1992, when the Postal Service’s field structure was redesigned, Management Sectional Centers (MSCs) were in charge of every postal movement inside a particular ZIP Code extend. In 1981 there were 278 MSCs across the country; the Shreveport MSC was in charge of around 125 Post Offices.

[93] United States Postal Service, Comprehensive Statement on Postal Operations, 1992, 1.

[94] Ibid., 1-3.

[95] Federal Times, February 17, 1997.

[96] The investigation was provoked by del Junco’s case that African Americans were overrepresented in the postal workforce; he trusted that some postal directors were blameworthy of invert separation, to the impediment of Hispanic residents (see Los Angeles Times, August 3, 1994).

[97] United States General Accounting Office, Report # GAO/GGD-00-76, March 2000, “Decent variety in the Postal Career Executive Service.”



Wright: The Life and Times (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), 78, and Jerry W. Ward, Jr., and Robert J. Steward, editors, The Richard Wright Encyclopedia (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008), 74-77. In 2009 Wright was respected on a U.S. postage stamp.

[59] Dwight D. Eisenhower, “Debut Address,” January 20, 1953. From University of California, American Presidency Project. (gotten to September 29, 2011). [60] Glenn, 202-203. [61] The Chicago Defender, January 5, 1952, 13. [62] The Pittsburgh Courier, August 8, 1953, 18. [63] McGee, 89. [64] Glenn, 201. [65] Ibid., 115. [66] Ibid., 206. [67] Glenn, 204. [68] Ibid., 281. [69] The New York Times, July 11, 1958, 46. [70] McGee, 83. [71] The Afro-American, December 2, 1961, 2. [72] John F. Kennedy, “Official Order 10925,” March 6, 1961, and “Proclamation by the President Upon Signing Order Establishing the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity,” March 7, 1961. From University of California, American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/print.php?pid=58863 and http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/print.php?pid=8520 (gotten to December 3, 2010). [73] Post Offices were partitioned into classes dependent on their income from 1864 to 1975; top notch workplaces were the most astounding netting. In 1961, 11.6 percent of Post Offices across the nation were assigned as five star. [74] The Afro-American, December 15, 1962, 18. [75] Statement of Lloyd B. Sydnor, April 10, 1961, taken by Postal Inspectors F. A. Mervis and K. S. Maynard related to Postal Inspection Service Case No. 120435-C, “Protest of conceivable biased practices in work force matters including Negroes utilized at the Mail Equipment Shops,” in the documents of the USPS Historian. [76] Post Office Department Office of Inspector, Postal Inspectors F. A. Mervis and K. S. Maynard to Inspector-in-Charge, Washington, D.C., April 20, 1961, Case No. 120435-C, “Grievance of conceivable oppressive practices in work force matters including Negroes utilized at the Mail Equipment Shops,” records of USPS Historian. [77] Monthly gatherings were held between administration, the National Alliance of Postal Employees and other worker’s organizations; position arrangements of the Shops’ representatives were posted and preparing programs were set up to empower senior workers to fit the bill for more elevated amount occupations; and open doors for points of interest were posted, notwithstanding the required postings for more elevated amount opportunities. [78] The Wall Street Journal, June 6, 1963, 8. [79] Ibid. [80] Figures for best workers in 1961 allude to Postal Field Service (PFS) levels 12-20, and in 1968, to PFS levels 12-21. [81] The Chicago Daily Defender December 14, 1967, 17. [82] Ebony, December 1966, 50. [83] McGee noticed that in spite of the fact that ladies made magnificent representatives, since they needed rank they wound up filling in as mailhandlers, where they had a harder time lifting substantial sacks of mail. To redress, representatives set less mail in sacks to make them lighter, which cost the Post Office Department more to transport, since railways charged by the sack, not by weight (Ibid.). [84] Post Office Department official statement, October 13, 1967.